Category Archives: Uncategorized

Crimes Against Humanity in International Criminal Law

Bassiouni, MC


In this revised edition, Professor Bassiouni persuasively establishes the legal validity of the Nuremberg Charter and describes the evolution of crimes against humanity’ from 1945 to the 1998 ICC Statute. The book’s comprehensive historical and legal analysis starts with the origins of this crime in the international regulation of armed conflicts and covers the Nuremberg, Tokyo and Allied Prosecutions after World War II, and subsequent national prosecutions, as well as the Statutes of the ICTY, ICTR and their jurisprudence, and the Statute of the ICC. The Nuremberg Charter first established crimes against humanity’ in positive international criminal law, but it raised lingering legal issues. The book examines the ten different international legal formulations which were developed at that time, particularly their overlap with genocide and war crimes, and sorts out the confusion regarding the legal characteristics of this crime. The meticulous and thorough analysis of all relevant legal issues, many of which are not covered elsewhere, includes: principles of legality, criminal responsibility for decision-makers and others, command responsibility, obedience to superior orders and other defences, specific contents and their counterpart in national laws, policy considerations, and the applicability of this crime to non-State actors. The wealth of information and detailed discussion of international and national prosecutions and their failures make a compelling case for more effective enforcement in the future. The author brings to this book his well-known scholarship and unique practical experiences as Chairman of the UN Commission that investigated these crimes in the former Yugoslavia, and as Chairman of the ICC’s Drafting Committee in Rome. The breadth and depth of this exhaustively documented book makes it the definitive authority on crimes against humanity’.…

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JPRS Report: Near East & South Asia – Bangladesh

Foreign Broadcast Information Service


This is an unclassified file of the Foreign Broadcast Information Service released on September 3rd 1992. Bangladesh is the subject and most of the reports are derived from Bangladeshi newspapers during that time period. You will be able to find Golam Azam’s citizenship and his jail sentence issue, movement of the Ghatok Dalal Nirmul Committee and other important events during that time period. These are very interesting historical documents having relevance to present day War Crime Trial issue.…

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Right and Responsibility- What Kind of Right is the Right of Humanitarian Intervention

Peltonen, H


This paper examines explicitly what kind of a right the right of humanitarian intervention is. It is argued that the most plausible right-holders would be the UN Security Council and any third party as authorized by the Council. It is argued that different right-holders would have a different kind of right. The implications of different kinds of rights are diverse and require both theoretical and practical considerations. Moreover, a link between the right and responsibility to intervene is made.…

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Law at War: The Law as it Was and the Law as it Should Be- Liber Amicorum Ove Bring

Engdahl, Ola and Wrange, PÃ¥l


The authors of this volume have been inspired by the scholar to which this Liber Amicorum is dedicated – Professor Ove Bring – to look into both the past and the future of international law. Like Ove Bring, they have dealt with many aspects of the law governing the use of force, from arms control to human rights, international criminal law, the UN Charter, and, of course, international humanitarian law. Like Professor Bring, they have allowed themselves to draw trajectories from history and into the future, and have shunned away from neither the controversial nor the speculative, be it on the Middle East, the invasion of Iraq or the independence of Kosovo.
This collection brings together insights from a former UN Legal Counsel, a former Executive Chairman of UNMOVIC, present and former judges of the European Court of Justice, the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia and the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea, one present and one former member of the International Law Commission, as well as law professors and practitioners, from all Nordic countries, Germany and Australia. Together they form a highly challenging mosaic of perspectives on topical issues like cluster munitions, targeting, human rights in peace operations and the purposes of sentencing in international tribunals.…

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Military Rape

Littlewood, Roland


The author explains some of problems associated with interpretations of rape during war. It is not just that sexuality and violence may be manifest together in troubled times, but that the mass rape and sexual killing of women appear standardized in certain ways. Their frequency argues rape in wartime to be a normal part of what is to be human; yet any attempt to consider it outside of an immediate outrage or ascription of chaos and pathology threatens to become independent of compelling human concerns…

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On the Battlefield of Women’s Bodies: An Overview of the Harm of war to Women

Hynes, HP


By the 1990s, 9 of 10 people who died in war from direct and indirect effects were civilians. Bombs and weapons of
modern war kill and maim civilian women in equal numbers to civilian men. A unique harm of war for women is the trauma
inflicted in military brothels, rape camps, and the growing sex trafficking for prostitution and by increased domestic violence,
all of which is fueled by the culture of war, male aggression, and the social and economic ruin left in the wake of war.
Widows of war, women victims of landmines, and women refugees of war are particularly vulnerable to poverty, prostitution,
the extortion of sex for food by post-war peacekeepers, and higher illness and death in the post-conflict period. While
problems exist with definitions and methods of measurement, a full accounting of the harm of war to civilian women is
needed in the debate over whether war is justified.…

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Archive I: Media Archive

Archives news reports, opinions, editorials published in different media outlets from around the world on 1971, International Crimes Tribunal and the justice process.

Archive II: ICT Documentation

For the sake of ICT’s legacy this documentation project archives, and preserves proceeding-documents, e.g., judgments, orders, petitions, timelines.

Archive III: E-Library

Brings at fingertips academic materials in the areas of law, politics, and history to facilitate serious research on 1971, Bangladesh, ICT and international justice.

Archive IV: Memories

This archive records from memory the nine-month history of 1971 as experienced and perceived by individuals from all walks of life.